Tuesday, 25 November 2008

The First World War (WWI)

Causes 1) After the industrial revolution, the European countries needs more raw materials and larger market → conflicts on territorial expansion 2) On Late 19th century onwards they start arm themselves → arms race, naval race between Germany and Britain on dreadnoughts which were the best battleships that time. 3) Extreme Nationalism (EN)- protect/support the (other) country with the same type of people . Germany - Austria-Hungary - Pan-Germanism and Russia - Serbia - Pan-Slavism. 4) Alliance system (AS)- France was defeated in Franco-Prussian War in 1870 to Germany and loss Alsace and Lorraine (industrial area), they hate Germany. Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy formed Triple Alliance on 1882 and France, Britain and Russia afraid them and formed Triple Enterte 25 years later (1907). They have been divided into 2 rivals. Outbreak 28th June 1914, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and his wife was assassinated by a Serb when they visited Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina which are land of Austria-Hungary but Serb as a main population there. Russia support Serbia (EN) while Germany (EN) and France(AS) support Austria-Hungary and they joined the war. 3rd Aug. 1914, Germany attacks France, they walks through Belgium so that Britain declare war on Germany (protect Belgium). Feb. 1917, Germany start to attack all merchants ship towards Britain and USA suffers lost. USA declare war on Germany then. 1918, Germany attacks Paris again but lost, the military attacks Germany and she surrendered on Nov. 1918 in Paris called the Paris Peace Conference, Germany is forced to sign Treaty of Versailles. This made her felt humiliates and wanted revenge → cause of WWII. Results Treaty of Versailles 1) Germany is solely responsible for the war. 2) Lose all colonies. 3) Banned military(less then 100000 solders), no up-to-date weapons and can’t produce armaments. 4) Pay the cost of war. European empire collapses and new nations - Russia → U.S.S.R.(Soviet Union, Communist); Germany and Turkey becomes republics, Austria-Hungary becomes two country (Austria & Hungary). New country formed - Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Develop new weapons -tank, canon, submarines, air ship and poison gas. Heavy casualties and sereve destructions - 8 million solders killed. Rising state of Women-more independent, earn their own salaries and in charge of the household finances.
Formations of League of Nations in Geneva in 1920 to settle international disputes in the future and to prevent outbreak of another world war.

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